What Is Cte Disease: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, often known as CTE, is a degenerative disease of the brain that is believed to be brought on by repetitive blows to the head as well as recurrent bouts of concussion.
It is most commonly seen in athletes that participate in contact sports, such as boxing and American football. The majority of the studies that have been conducted were conducted on formerly active athletes.
Formerly referred to as “punch drunk” disease and dementia pugilistica, CTE is the acronym for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, these labels are no longer used because it is now common knowledge that former boxers are not the only people affected by the ailment.
Concerning how widespread CTE is and how it should be identified in patients, opinions are still mixed. At this time, the only therapies that are available are supportive, and the primary emphasis of the research is on developing a method that is accurate enough to identify the ailment.
A number of variables, including the frequency and severity of blows to the head, are suspected of playing a role in the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), but researchers are still attempting to figure out how these and other factors can interact to cause CTE.
CTE has been discovered in the brains of former football players and athletes who participated in other contact sports, such as boxing. It is also possible for those who served in the military and were exposed to explosive blasts to get it. It is believed that issues with thinking (cognition) and emotions, physical problems, and other behaviours are some of the indications and symptoms of CTE. It is believed that they manifest themselves years to decades after the initial brain trauma.
CTE as a diagnosis cannot be made throughout life, with the exception of extremely rare individuals who have been exposed to high-risk environments. Researchers do not yet have an accurate understanding of the causes of CTE, nor do they know how common CTE is among the general population. CTE cannot be cured at this time. Researchers are working to discover diagnostic biomarkers for CTE at the moment, but none of them have been verified as of yet.
A history of repeated blows to the brain is one factor that is present in every case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Athletes who participate in contact sports and veterans of the armed forces are the most likely to have CTE.
What are the signs and symptoms of CTE?
CTE has been discovered in individuals whose primary exposure to head impacts was through activities such as tackle football (500+ cases confirmed at the VA-BU-CLF Brain Bank), the military (50+ cases), hockey (30+ cases), boxing (20+ cases, 50+ globally), rugby (10+ cases), soccer (5+ cases, 20+ globally), pro wrestling (5+ cases), and, in fewer than three cases each, baseball, basketball, intimate partner violence, and individuals with developmental disorders who engaged in head-banging behaviour.
Importantly, not everyone who has had repeated blows to the brain will acquire chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). There are a variety of risk variables at play, including the age at which an individual is exposed to head impacts for the first time, the number of years that an individual is exposed, and heredity. Some people are more likely to acquire CTE than others.
At this time, CTE can only be identified after a person has passed away by an examination of their brain tissue. Brain illness specialists create incisions in the patient’s brain and apply specialised chemicals in order to make aberrant tau protein visible on the tissue section.
After that, they conduct a methodical search of various regions of the brain for tau in the distinctive pattern that is characteristic of CTE. The procedure might take many months to finish, and the study is not normally conducted as part of a standard autopsy procedure. In point of fact, up until fairly recently, there were not that many medical professionals who were aware of how to diagnose CTE.
Researchers from the VA-BU-CLF Brain Bank, led by Dr Ann McKee, collaborated with the National Institutes of Health in 2015 to develop diagnostic criteria for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). These criteria were developed so that any neuropathologist who is experienced with brain diseases can accurately diagnose CTE. The completion of this vital study has made it feasible for an increasing number of scientists to be on the lookout for CTE, which has contributed to the acceleration of development.
Is CTE fatal?
Although there is currently no cure or therapy for CTE, certain drugs can be used to temporarily address the cognitive (memory and thinking) and behavioural symptoms that are associated with the condition. Before taking any drug, whether it be prescribed or over-the-counter, you should first discuss it with your primary care physician.
The research attempts to understand more about chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is being funded by a number of different organisations, including the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes and the Brain Injury Research Institute. More than two million dollars worth of research funding has been funded by the Alzheimer’s Association in order to better understand CTE.
Confusion, disorientation, dizziness, and headaches are some of the early signs of the disease. Memory loss, social instability, impulsive conduct, and poor judgement are some of the symptoms that appear in the second stage. Symptoms that appear in the third and fourth stages of Alzheimer’s disease include increasing dementia, mobility difficulties, hypomimia, speech impairments, sensory processing dysfunction, tremors, vertigo, deafness, sadness, and suicidal ideation. 
Dysarthria, dysphagia, cognitive impairments such as forgetfulness, and visual abnormalities such as ptosis are some of the other symptoms of this condition.
 The symptoms of the condition include dementia, which refers to a decline in mental ability, issues with memory, spells of dizziness or a lack of balance to the point where the individual is unable to walk under their own power for a short period of time, and/or Parkinsonism, which refers to tremors and a lack of coordination.
It is also possible for it to produce difficulty with speaking and an unsteady stride. Patients who have chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) may exhibit conduct that is inappropriate or explosive, as well as pathological jealousy or paranoia.
It is not feasible to diagnose CTE in living patients; a definitive diagnosis may only be obtained by autopsy of a deceased individual. Although there are indications and symptoms that some experts believe are associated with CTE, there is currently no test that can conclusively demonstrate the condition in a living individual. There are a lot of similarities between the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and those of other neurological disorders.
Due to the absence of specific biomarkers, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is often unable to be identified while a person is still living. Because concussions are non-structural injuries and do not result in bleeding in the brain, the majority of concussions cannot be identified on normal neuroimaging tests such as CT or MRI. These examinations include:
It is important to note that chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) symptoms are not to be confused with acute concussion symptoms, which manifest themselves soon after an injury. It can be challenging to distinguish the symptoms of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) from those of prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PCS), a condition in which symptoms begin immediately after a concussion and continue for weeks, months, or even years.